What is the p15 protein?
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is encoded by the CDKN2B gene in humans.
What does M CDK stand for?
What are INK4 factors?
INK4 proteins are tumor suppressors and loss-of-function mutations lead to carcinogenesis. INK4 proteins are highly similar in terms of structure and function, with up to 85% amino acid similarity. They contain multiple ankyrin repeats.
How many steps are required for CDK activation?
Cdk activation requires two steps. First, cyclin must bind to the Cdk. In the second step, CAK must phosphorylate the cyclin-Cdk complex on the threonine residue 160, which is located in the Cdk activation segment.
What is CDK pathway?
The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway (see Figure) is a series of complexes formed between cyclins and their associated kinases. CDK inhibitors and regulators are important for controlling this process and are therefore responsible for regulating cell proliferation.
Where is CDK found?
Cyclins and Cdks are very evolutionarily conserved, meaning that they are found in many different types of species, from yeast to frogs to humans.
Is p15 a transcription factor?
Akt/protein kinase B promotes cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis, in part, by phosphorylating FOXOs. Phosphorylated FOXOs could not exhibit transcriptional activity because of their nuclear export. Here we show that p15(INK4b) and p19(INK4d) transcription is associated with FOXO-mediated G1 cell-cycle arrest.
What happens to the body when there is uncontrolled cell growth?
Disruption of normal regulation of the cell cycle can lead to diseases such as cancer. When the cell cycle proceeds without control, cells can divide without order and accumulate genetic errors that can lead to a cancerous tumor .
How is cell cycle controlled?
The central components of the cell-cycle control system are cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks), whose activity depends on association with regulatory subunits called cyclins. Oscillations in the activities of various cyclin-Cdk complexes leads to the initiation of various cell-cycle events.