## What is a Tier 1 analysis?

Tier 1 is the simplest approach, comprising a qualitative assessment of risk; Tier 2 introduces basic quantitative analysis and Tier 3 more detailed quantitative methods. …

**What is pseudo lateral force?**

The pseudo lateral force of Equation (3-1) represents the force required, in a linear static analysis, to impose the expected actual deformation of the structure in its yielded state when subjected to the design earthquake motions.

### What is a response spectrum used for?

Response spectra are very useful tools of earthquake engineering for analyzing the performance of structures and equipment in earthquakes, since many behave principally as simple oscillators (also known as single degree of freedom systems).

**What is Response Reduction Factor?**

Response reduction factor is the factor by which the actual base shear force should be reduced, to obtain the design lateral force during design basic earthquake (DBE) shaking. The response reduction factor (R) is basically depends on Over strength (Rs), Ductility (Rµ), Redundancy (RR).

#### What is CQC method?

iA Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method is proposed which reduces errors in modal combination in all samples studied. The CQC method degenerates into the SRSS method for systems with well-spaced natural frequencies.

**What does R factor account for?**

R factor is the ratio of strength required to maintain structural elasticity in force-based seismic design procedures. This factor is important in estimating the seismic force of a structural building.

## What is difference between SRSS and CQC method?

The CQC method degenerates into the SRSS method for systems with well-spaced natural frequencies. ice the CQC method only involves a small increase in numerical effort, it is recommended that the new approach be used asa replacement for the SRSS method in all response spectrum calculations.

**What is SRSS and CQC?**

sum of squares (SRSS) method and complete quadratic combination (CQC) method of combining. maximum modal responses (Kiureghian[1]) are widely used to determine the maximum seismic responses. for structures. Generally speaking, SRSS method has good accuracy when the modal frequencies are well. separated.

### How do you find the strength reduction factor?

The strength reduction factor is used to decrease the estimated strength of structural members, i.e., to compute the design strength of concrete elements….2. Strength Reduction Factors.

Actions or structural member | Strength reduction factor |
---|---|

Tension controlled beams and slab | 0.90 |

Shears and torsions in beams | 0.75 |

**What is fatigue strength reduction factor?**

Fatigue-Strength-Reduction Factor Article NB-3200 in Section III of the ASME Code provides the following definition: “Fatigue strength reduction factor is a stress intensification factor which accounts for the effect of a local structural discontinuity (stress concentration) on the fatigue strength.”