What are the three definitions of curriculum?
Albert Oliver (1977): curriculum is “the educational program of the school” and divided into four basic elements: 1) program of studies, 2) program of experiences, 3) program of service, 4) hidden curriculum. …
How is curriculum defined?
Curriculum is a standards-based sequence of planned experiences where students practice and achieve proficiency in content and applied learning skills. Curriculum must include the necessary goals, methods, materials and assessments to effectively support instruction and learning.
What is Ishidden curriculum?
Hidden Curriculum is a side effect of education where lessons are learned but not openly intended. Hidden curriculum often refers to norms, values and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment.
What is curriculum according to John Dewey?
John Dewey defines curriculum as a continuous reconstruction, moving from the learner’s present experience out into that represented by the organized bodies of truth that we call studies… the various studies… are themselves experience—they are that of the race.
Who is the father of curriculum?
Tyler (1902-1994) was closely associated with curriculum theory and development and educational assessment and evaluation. Many consider him to be the “father” of behavioral objectives, a concept he frequently used in asserting learning to be a process through which one attains new patterns of behavior.
What is curriculum according to Franklin Bobbitt?
Bobbitt formulated five steps in curriculum making: (a) analysis of human experience, (b) job analysis, (c) deriving objectives, (d) selecting objectives, and (e) planning in detail. The third step was to derive the objectives of education from statements of the abilities required to perform the activities.
Who invented curriculum?
Credit for our modern version of the school system usually goes to Horace Mann. When he became Secretary of Education in Massachusetts in 1837, he set forth his vision for a system of professional teachers who would teach students an organized curriculum of basic content.
Who coined hidden curriculum?
The hidden curriculum has pretty well become a standard term in educational discourse. Despite this, it is the educational sociologists more than anyone else who use it, certainly far more than educational psychologists, although it was an educational psychologist, Philip Jackson,1 who originally coined the term.
How do Marxists view the hidden curriculum?
For Marxists, the hidden curriculum is concerned with the production, maintenance and legitimation of social inequality. The ‘official’ curriculum is ignored and the school is viewed as an organisation within which ‘actors’ (teachers and pupils), with varying amounts of power, interact and negotiate.