What is the concept of apoptosis?
(A-pop-TOH-sis) A type of cell death in which a series of molecular steps in a cell lead to its death. This is one method the body uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. The process of apoptosis may be blocked in cancer cells. Also called programmed cell death.
What is apoptosis PPT?
INTRODUCTION Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation.
What is apoptosis and its types?
The two major types of apoptosis pathways are “intrinsic pathways,” where a cell receives a signal to destroy itself from one of its own genes or proteins due to detection of DNA damage; and “extrinsic pathways,” where a cell receives a signal to start apoptosis from other cells in the organism. …
What are the causes of apoptosis?
Apoptosis plays important roles in physiology and pathology, and can be triggered by numerous stimuli, including ischemia, hypoxia, exposure to certain drugs and chemicals, immune reactions, infectious agents, high temperature, radiation, and various disease states.
How is apoptosis triggered?
How was apoptosis discovered?
Discovery and etymology. German scientist Carl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Kerr at the University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death.
What is apoptosis, and why is it important?
Apoptosis removes cells during development. It also eliminates pre-cancerous and virus-infected cells, although “successful” cancer cells manage to escape apoptosis so they can continue dividing. Apoptosis maintains the balance of cells in the human body and is particularly important in the immune system.
What is key function of apoptosis?
One primary function of apoptosis is to destroy cells that are dangerous to the rest of the organism. A common reason for apoptosis is when a cell recognizes that its DNA has been badly damaged. In these cases, the DNA damage triggers apoptosis pathways, ensuring that the cell cannot become a malignant cancer.
What are the various phases of apoptosis?
– Cytomorphological alterations – DNA fragmentation – Detection of caspases, cleaved substrates, regulators and inhibitors – Membrane alterations – Detection of apoptosis in whole mounts 6. Mitochondrial assays.
What is the difference between apoptosis and cancer?
Understanding apoptosis in disease conditions is very important as it not only gives insights into the pathogenesis of a disease but may also leaves clues on how the disease can be treated. In cancer, there is a loss of balance between cell division and cell death and cells that should have died did not receive the signals to do so.