What are GAL4 lines?
Geneticists have created genetic variants of model organisms (typically fruit flies), called GAL4 lines, each of which expresses GAL4 in some subset of the animal’s tissues. These are strains of flies with the special UAS region next to a desired gene.
What is Split GAL4?
The Split Gal4 system. (A) The binary Gal4-UAS expression system can be used to target the expression of a reporter or effector (green) to a group of cells (red circle) in which an enhancer (Enhancer 1) is active.
What does GAL4 bind to?
The GAL4 protein of yeast activates the transcription of several genes involved in galactose metabolism. This event requires that GAL4 bind to upstream activation sites with the consensus sequence 5′-CGGN5(T/A)N5CCG-3′.
How does GAL4 Drosophila?
The Gal4/UAS system It is a Drosophila geneticist’s main workhorse to turn genes on or off. Gal4 is a transcriptional activator that binds to UAS enhancer sequences found in DNA. It then recruits transcription machinery to the site to induce gene expression.
What is a driver line in genetics?
The driver lines provide tissue-specific GAL4 expression and the responder lines carry the coding sequence for the gene of interest under the control of UAS sites. In this chapter, the basic GAL4/UAS system and its extensions, namely those allowing precise temporal control and reversible expression, are described.
Which GAL4 drivers can be used to express proteins in Drosophila motor neurons?
Several useful GAL4 drivers are expressed in Ib and Is MNs, but in some cases they are also expressed in neuromodulatory MNs (Koon and Budnik 2012), or in both Type Ib and Is MNs (Fujioka et al. 2003). Other Type I-specific drivers are steroid-activated (Nicholson et al. 2008).
Why is GAL4 used?
The GAL4/UAS system is commonly used in Drosophila to drive expression of a gene of interest (Brand & Perrimon, 1993).
Is GAL4 an activator?
Yeast Gal4, one of the first known acidic activators, is responsible for the regulation of genes involved in galactose catabolism (41). In the absence of galactose, Gal4 is inhibited by the repressor Gal80.
How does Gal4 activate transcription?
Gal4 recognizes genes with UASG, an upstream activating sequence, and activates them. In yeast cells, the principal targets are GAL1 (galactokinase), GAL10 (UDP-glucose 4-epimerase), and GAL7 (galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase), three enzymes required for galactose metabolism.
Is Gal4 an activator?
What chromosome is Gal4 on?
Is Gal4 expressed in Drosophila?